Media coverage of organized doping use in Russia was boosted in December 2014, when the German TV channel ARD broadcast a documentary about state-sponsored doping in Russia, which has even been compared to doping practices from the former GDR.
In January 2015, Valentin Balakhnichev (1949-), then President of the Russian Athletics Federation, resigned as Treasurer of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
In response to the ARD documentary, Canadian WADA chairman Dick Pound (1942-) commissioned an investigation, the 335-page report of which was published on November 9, 2015. That report exposed not only the widespread doping activities of the Russian authorities, but also large-scale cover-ups. It showed that Russia had "sabotaged" the 2012 Olympics by delegating athletes who should not have competed due to doping violations.
The report also noted that the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) had regularly visited and questioned laboratory personnel and instructed some not to participate in the WADA investigation. The report stated that the lab was not compliant with the World Anti-Doping Code and that the IOC was certainly not allowed to accept any results for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio.
The day after, WADA suspended Moscow's anti-doping center and banned any further WADA-related anti-doping activities.
On November 13, the IAAF Council agreed, by 22 votes to 1, to ban Russia from track and field competitions worldwide with immediate effect. Also, the Russians were no longer allowed to organize the World Race Walking Team Championship and the 2016 World Junior Championships.
But many claimed that this doping scandal, which had turned the entire sports world upside down, went much further than Russia alone.
For example, Canadian Wada chairman Dick Pound (1942-) stated for the British TV channel BBC 5Live:
“This iceberg spreads in two different directions. I suspect that the athletics world has problems in four to six other countries. Every international sports organization should look today at the Russian sports world and check whether the men and women participating in their events are also clean. Most countries do not have a robust anti-doping regime.”
The UK anti-doping agency, which assisted WADA in Russia with testing, reported in June 2016 that it was unable to do its job properly due to the intimidation attempts by armed Russian security agents.
Wada published the list of positive drug tests, which were registered in accredited laboratories in 2013. Of the 207,513 samples tested from various sports disciplines, 2,540 were found to have an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF). 1,953 of these resulted in a sanction, for 115 nationalities from 89 different sports. With 225 positive tests, Russia had the most violations, 37 more than Turkey.
In November 2015, the French General Court launched a criminal investigation into former Senegalese IAAF President Lamine Diack (1933-). He was suspected of having accepted $ 1 million in bribes from the Russian athletics federation in 2011, to make positive doping results from at least six Russian athletes disappear.
In 2015, 1,440 competition doping controls were conducted in Belgium, of which 3.2% was positive. Outside of competition, 531 tests took place, with none positive. Auditors also visited fitness centers, 136 tests yielded 19.9% positive results. Anabolics and testosterone accounted for 36% of the cases, stimulants such as amphetamines for 34%. 23.4% of the doping practices identified were refusers. Positive tests were taken in bodybuilding, 12.5% in indoor football, 11.8% in rowing, 11.1% in kickboxing, 8.3% in powerlifting and motorsport, 5.6% in equestrian sports, in cycling 4.4% among the side associations, 3.7% in boxing, 3.3% in judo, 5.5% in athletics and 0.9% in cycling of the KBWB.
The Dutch anti-doping committee calculated that 39% of the athletes had used doping. Slightly more than 4% of the official Dutch top athletes admitted that they intentionally doped to improve their performance. The data resulted from an investigation by the Dutch Doping Authority and the University of Utrecht, which questioned the athletes. Most often there was manipulation of the blood. In 2014, the Dutch Doping Authority carried out a total of 2,483 checks, 130 degradation products were found that could indicate doping.
A February 2015 publication from the Human Kinetic Journal revealed that 40 to 70% of athletes used dietary supplements, and 10 to 15% of those supplements contained banned substances. This showed that the use by dietary supplements might be a significant risk of accidental or unintentionally doping use.
During Operation Cyber Juice, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) announced the arrest of 90 people and it also closed 16 illegal steroid laboratories.
The global anti-doping agency WADA announced the names of 114 coaches and counselors who were suspended for doping. During their suspension they were no longer allowed to cooperate with athletes. A striking number of Italians on the list. WADA also signed an agreement with the Chinese Ministry of Sports to deal with massive doping production and trade in that country. WADA and Interpol exchanged information on this with the Chinese investigative services.
During two out of competition checks, Tara Harbert (1983-) tested positive for tamoxifen, for which she was suspended for eight years. The member of the American baseball team was also active as a bodybuilder.
Jenrry Mejia (1989-) from the Dominican Republic played for the New York Mets when he was caught using boldenone in April. That gave him a suspension of eighty playing days. In July it was hit again, this time boldenone and stanozolol were in the game, which meant a suspension of 162 days. But that was not all yet, in February 2016 a new positive test followed on boldenone, after which the MLB sent him off the field for life.
Seattle Rollers' David Rollins (1989-) was suspended for eighty games after testing positive for stanozolol.
Dominican Republic's Ervin Santana (1982-) played for the Minnesota Twins when he was suspended eighty games for using stanozolol.
Albanian boxer Rexhildo Zeneli (1996-) was unexpectedly checked during the first European Games and delivered a positive pee on the diuretic furosemide. He could pack his suitcases immediately.
Australian canoeist Tate Smith (1981-), who captured gold in the K4 at the 2012 London Olympics, was suspended for two years for taking stanozolol.
After the GP of Malaysia, Formula E driver Franck Montagny (1978-) tested positive for cocaine, after which the Frenchman was suspended for two years.
American Jonathan Carter Luck (1991-) was suspended for 12 months for using hGH and testosterone.
After the Rosewood Series in Cooper City, Florida, Nelson Rolo (1984-) tested positive for benzoylecgonine, a metabolite of cocaine, which forced the American to side for a year.
Tod Hickman (1966-) won the Louisiana-Mississippi Age-Graded Road Championships, but the American tested positive for stanozolol and methylphenidate afterwards, for which he was suspended for four years.
American Kyle Schmidt (1975-) had to watch from the side for two years after admitting that he had bought EPO through two different websites.
In her biography, former cyclist and skater Clara Hughes (1972-) surprised sports-loving Canada with the confession that she had tested positive after the 1994 World Cycling Championships in Sicily. However, the relevant authorities had kept this quiet. The Canadian won gold in the 5,000m at the 2006 OS in Turin and in 2004 she was crowned world champion in that event.
Colombian Oscar Tovar (1983-) tested positive for anabolic steroids after Gran Fondo New York and was given two years of suspension for it.
American Lauren Mulwitz (1980-) accepted a 6-month suspension because she was caught using cannabis after the Manhattan Beach Grand Prix.
Before the start of the Tour of Utah, which he had won twice, Tom Danielson (1978-) tested positive for testosterone. Since the American had been suspended for blood doping in 2012, he now had four years and his team Cannondale-Garmin kicked him out.
The Russian anti-doping agency RUSADA suspended Russian Andrey Lukonin (1995-) and Moldovan Ivan Lutsenko (1995-) for a year, without mentioning what the cyclists of cycling team Katusha had been up to.
Frenchman Lloyd Mondory (1982-) was caught during an out-of-competition check on EPO use and suspended for four years.
After the sixth stage of the Tour of the Future, Ukrainian Anatoliy Budyak (1995-) tested positive for the amphetamine preparation mesocarb. The verdict was two years' suspension.
After the second stage of the Tour de Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Fernando Augusto Finkler (1996-) tested positive for clostebol and was suspended for a year.
Giampaolo Caruso (1980-) was caught using EPO when retesting his 2012 blood samples, giving the Italian a two-year suspension.
During an out of competition check Fabio Taborre (1985-) tested positive for FG-4592, for which the Italian was suspended for four years. FG-4592 is a product that increases the red blood cell count.
Because this was already the second doping case after the positive control of Italian Davide Appollonio (1989-) a few months earlier, the UCI suspended the Italian cycling team Androni Giocattoli-Sidermec for the entire month of August. Appollonio also had to serve a four-year suspension.
Francesco Reda (1982-) surprisingly finished second in the Italian championship, but tested positive for EPO afterwards. Because he had been suspended for fourteen months in 2013 for missing a doping test, he now received eight years.
After the seventh stage in the Tour de France, Italian Luca Paolini (1977-) tested positive for cocaine. In an interview with the Italian newspaper La Gazetta dello Sport, he said that in 2004, after the death of his brother, he became addicted to sleep medication, which made him feel less clear and to counteract that he used cocaine. After his positive test in the Tour, he was admitted to a clinic in Verona. After eighteen months of suspension, he no longer found a new team, after which he ended his career in January 2017.
Nicki Sørensen (1975-) confessed that he had used doping during his cycling career. The admission of the Danish sports director of Tinkoff-Saxo coincided with the report of the Danish anti-doping agency.
“I fully admit that I used doping. It saddens me, I wish I could reverse it. It happened over a decade ago in the early years of my career and it was my own choice.”
The UCI suspended Ramon Carretero (1990-) for four years because the Panamanian had tested positive for EPO just before the Tour of Turkey during an out-of-competition test.
Petr Ignatenko (1987-) was caught out of competition on the use of the human growth hormone hGH during a test out of competition, the Russian was suspended for three years and nine months.
After Hichem Chabaane (1988-) finished second in the Africa Tour, the Algerian tested positive for EPO and corticostoids, earning him a four-year suspension.
According to the German TV channel ARD, a study conducted by UEFA in top football showed an increase in anabolic use. The football association itself nuanced the results and stated that the study did not provide scientific evidence. According to the ARD, notable testosterone levels were measured in 7.7 percent of 879 controlled footballers, which could indicate anabolic steroid use.
"In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the German football clubs VfB Stuttgart and SC Freiburg used organized doping," concluded the investigative committee of the University of Freiburg. "For the first time, systematic anabolic use can be demonstrated in German football."
Opinions on the study were divided. German Professor of Sports Medicine Perikles Simon (1973-) of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz stated that the striking values were not necessarily caused by doping.
British doping hunter Julien Baker, Professor of Sports Science at the University of the West of Scotland's Institute for Clinical Exercise and Health Science, was concerned:
“If these results are correct, it is alarming. This shows that there is steroid abuse in the major European leagues.”
A pomade with anabolic steroids to grow his mustache gave attacker Kang Soo-il (1987-) from South Korean Jeju United a suspension of fifteen games. The event caused a lot of nice press flags in the newspapers, as can be clearly seen in the photo.
Croatian-Macedonian midfielder Arijan Ademi (1991-) from Dinamo Zagreb was suspended for four years because of his positive test after the Champions League game against Arsenal. The suspension was halved in 2017.
Briton Jake Livermore (1989-) tested positive for cocaine after the game at Crystal Palace, giving the Hull City midfielder a six-month suspension.
Midfielder Youcef Belaïli (1992-) from USM Alger tested positive after the match against USMA, which gave him a four-year suspension. The Algerian appealed to the African Football Association CAF, but he was given eight years for failing to pay court fees in time. Belali then went to the Arbitration Court for Sport in Lausanne, which reduced his sentence to two years.
Algerian players Rafik Boussaïd (1988-) from RC Arbaâ and Naoufel Ghassiri (1988-) from JSM Skikda delivered a positive test which meant four years of suspension.
Because American Deanna McGillivray (1990-) used trenbolone and epitrenbolone, she had to side for two years
Boston Pride's American Emily Field (1993-) was suspended for a year because she had not completed her whereabouts three times.
Brazilian Olympic and world champion Felipe Pena (1991-) was suspended for two years due to the use of anabolic steroids.
After his fight against fellow countryman Daniel Cormier (1979-) in early 2015, American Jon Jones (1987-) tested positive for cocaine. However, he was not punished because the substance was not yet on the NSAC banned substances list. Jones apologized and admitted to a rehab clinic, which he left the day after. After driving into a pregnant woman, Jones committed a flight crime, but was arrested in April 2015. The UFC decided to suspend him indefinitely and also took his title. He was arrested once in May 2012 when he drove into a pole with his Bentley while being drunk. Then he was released on bail and later sentenced to a fine of $ 1,000. His driving license was also withdrawn for six months, he had to have an alcohol lock fitted to his cars and a victim assistance course. In August, during the presentation of the fight against Daniel Cormier (1979-), both clashed on stage. Jones was sentenced by the NSAC to a fine of $ 50,000 and a community service sentence of 40 hours. In order to regain his lost title, Jones had to ring against Cormier again in July 2016. Two days before the fight, however, he tested positive and the camp was canceled. The verdict was suspended for a year. A new fight against Cormier followed in July 2017. He won but the doping test afterwards was positive again. He had to turn in the title and risked a four-year suspension. The USADA, however, was convinced that it had not deliberately used the prohibited substances, but had obtained them through contaminated food supplements. That's why he received the mild 15-month sentence. After ending his suspension, Jones faced Sweden's Alexander Gustafsson (1987-), but five days before the fight was revealed to have failed again in a doping test, the UFC believed the camp should continue and moved the event to Los Angeles, where Jones was licensed. The California State Athletic Commission assumed the new positive test was a result of the offense for which it had been previously suspended and not new use.
After winning the silver medal in the 200m butterfly at the Pan American Games, Mauicio Fiol (1994-) tested positive for stanozolol. The Peruvian had to hand in the metal and was suspended for four years, so he missed the 2016 Olympics in Rio.
In a test out of competition, Russian freestyle specialist Nikita Maksimov (1996-) tested positive for Oral Turinabol, the anabolic steroid from the GDR past. RUSADA suspended him for two years.
Freestyle specialist Kylie Palmer (1990-) was banned from the Australian squad just before the World Cup in Kazan, because a doping test two years earlier during the World Cup in Barcelona had shown the use of furosemide.
While preparing for the Asian Games, South Korean Park Tae-Hwan (1989-) tested positive for testosterone, for which he was suspended for 18 months in 2015. As a result, the Olympic 400m freestyle champion of 2008 and the world champion 400m freestyle of 2011 could not go to the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio.
American Wayne Odesnik (1985-) was no longer allowed to appear on the tennis courts for fifteen years, because he was caught a second time using methenolone, Androst- (2,3) -en-17-one and GHRP-6. In 2010, Australian customs officials handcuffed him at Brisbane Airport when ampoules of EPO and growth hormones were found in his luggage. For that offense, the Court fined him 7,000 Euros and the ITF suspended him for two years.
WADA was shocked to hear of allegations that the international athletics association IAAF would be particularly lax against "potential" doping sinners. The newspaper British Sunday Times and the German TV channel ARD/WDR had leaked results from 12,000 blood tests taken from more than 5,000 athletes between 2001 and 2012. It showed that more than 800 athletes had "particularly suspicious abnormal" values. These included athletes who had won medals at the Olympics and World Cups. More worrying than the number of suspicious athletes was the fact that only limited action had taken place. In barely a third of cases, an investigation had been carried out or a sentence was pronounced, the rest was left alone. The BBC reported that at the Olympics and World Cups from 2001 to 2012, as much as a third of the endurance athletics medals were won by athletes with "suspicious test results." The World Athletics Association IAAF distanced themselves from the publication, calling them "sensationalistic and confusing," adding that there was no evidence of any positive results. The allegation that nothing was done about the suspected blood values from years ago, the IAAF called "false journalism and a false representation of the facts."
On the eve of the World Championships in athletics, Kenya reacted very negatively to what was called a smear campaign. According to reports, 77 out of 800 "suspect" athletes came from that country.
Ethiopian-born Azerbaijani Chaltu Beji (1996-) tested positive for enobosarm at the 2015 European Games in Baku. She had to hand in the gold medal of the 3,000m steeple and was suspended for four years.
Two-time American decathlon champion Brian Coushay (1964-) tested positive for amphetamines at the National Masters Outdoor Track and Field Championships in Jacksonville, Florida and had to step aside for two years.
Former runner Mounir Acherki (1981-), who was a youth trainer in Colmar, was sentenced to four months in prison in November 2015 and fined € 500 for purchasing and owning EPO. In January 2014, French customs authorities intercepted a package from Thailand for Acherki, containing 10 ampoules of EPO. In total, the Frenchman received six orders, each worth € 235 to € 976. Because he admitted his doping use, the French athletics federation suspended him for four years in 2017, despite the fact that he was never officially caught.
After winning the Austin Marathon, Kenyan Joseph Mutinda (1974-) tested positive twice for 19-norandrosterone, EPO and furosemide in out-of-competition controls. It gave him a three-year suspension.
American long-distance runner Mohamed Trafeh (1985-) was caught using EPO and was suspended for four years. He decided to end his career.
Because he had refused a check at training camp, South African sprinter Simon Magakwe (1986-) was suspended for two years, because a refusal is equivalent to a positive pee.
Due to the use of prohibited substances and / or due to widely deviating values in their biological passports, the Russian anti-doping agency Rusada suspended five of its athletes, including three Olympia winners. The suspended champions included the race walkers Sergej Kirdyapkin (1980-), gold medalist in the 50km at the 2012 London Olympics, Valeriy Bortschin (1986-) and Olga Kaniskina (1985-), both gold medalist in the 20km at the 2008 Olympics in 2008 in Beijing. Borchin was given eight years beause he had already been caught in 2005 due to ephedrine use.
Kaniskina, Kirdyapkin and Sergei Bakulin (1986-), the 2011 world champion in the 50km race, were suspended for three years and two months.
Vladimir Kanajkin (1985-), 2001 World Champion 10km race walking in the juniors and World Record holder in the 20km from 2007 to 2012, was given a life sentence because he was already caught using EPO in 2008.
Joelija Zaripova (1986-) was suspended for 2.5 years by RUSADA due to deviating values in her biological passport. All its results between June 2011 and August 2011 and between July 2012 and September 2012 have been canceled. That meant that the Olympic champion of the 3000m steeple had to hand in the gold won in London, as well as her 2011 world title.
After the 2009 World Cup samples were retested, RUSADA also retroactively excluded heptathlon star Tatyana Chernova (1988-) for two years. Traces of Oral Turinabol, the 'infamous' anabolic steroid from the former GDR, were found in the old urine sample. After new blood analyzes and retests of the samples from the period 2011 and 2012, deviations in her biological passport were also found in November 2016.
Belarusian hammer-thrower Pavel Krivitsky (1984-) was suspended for four years, after traces of growth hormones were found during a doping test.
At the Berlin meeting, Russian hammer thrower Maria Bespalova (1986-) was caught using steroids and suspended for four years. Her name also surfaced in the McLaren report in 2019, canceling all her results between July 2012 and October 2015.
The Russian Athletics Federation suspended her marathon champion Maria Konovalova (1974-) for two years due to irregularities in her biological passport. All her achievements were canceled retroactively from August 2009.
The Kenyan Athletics Association suspended distance runner Josephine Jepkoech Jepkorir (1989-) for two years because she had used nandrolone in the Corrida São Silvestre.
800m runner Agatha Jeruto Kimaswai (1994-) was sidelined for four years. In the urine of the Kenyan there were breakdown products of nandrolone.
Kenyan marathon runner Julia Mumbi Muraga (1984-) was suspended for two years after testing positive for EPO.
During the World Cup in Beijing, 400m runner Joyce Zakary (1986-) and 400m hurdle runner Francisca Koki Manunga (1993-) delivered a positive pee on nandrolone, for which they were suspended for four years by the Kenyan athletics federation.
Kenyan former two-time world cross-country champion Emily Chebet (1986-) was suspended for four years for using furosemide.
Three years earlier, many Kenyan mid- and long-distance runners had already been discredited by suspicious blood values.
Because 43 Kenyan athletes were caught doping since 2012, the IAAF Ethics Committee suspended three Kenyan officials. Chairman Isaiah Kiplagat (1944-2016), Vice Chairman David Okeyo (1949-) and Treasurer Joseph Kinyua (1952-) each received three years. In 2018, Okeyo was even banned for life with a fine of $ 150,000 on top for spending hundreds of thousands of dollars from sponsor Nike for his own benefit.
Moroccan marathoner Abderrahime Bouramdane (1978-) was suspended for two years when irregularities were found in his biological passport.
American Brook Radcliffe (1979-) confessed to USADA the use and possession of EPO, which he had purchased through a website. It gave him a two-year suspension.
American Robert Radcliffe (1978-) confessed to the USADA the possession and use of EPO and hGH, which he purchased through two different websites. He was suspended for eighteen months.
Many weight lifters from India turned out to be large users in terms of prohibited performance-enhancing drugs. No fewer than 21 athletes responded positively to a doping test, all culprits were suspended for four years, their coaches two years.
The USADA suspended Cicely Kyle (1993-) for two years because of the use of anabolic steroids, Jonathan North (1987-) for two years because he did not report his whereabouts three times, Joseph Roberto (1974-) for four years because of the use of growth hormone GHRP-2 and Jason Rybka (1976-) four years after using methasterone, ostarine and androstatrienedone.
The International Weightlifters Federation announced its impressive list of doping sinners.
Received four years suspension: Dadash Dadashbayli (1996-) from Azerbaijan, Nastasia Noviava (1991-) and Aliaksandr Venskel (1993-) from Belarus, Demir Demirev (1984-), Stoyan Enev (1989-), Ivaylo Filev (1987-) ), Maya Ivanova (1991-), Milka Maneva (1985-), Ivan Markov (1988-), Dian Minchev (1989-), Asen Muradov (1991-), Ferdi Nazif (1989-), Nadezda-Mey Nguen (2000 -) and Vladimir Urumov (1990-) from Bulgaria, Jie Wang (1998-) and Yue Zhou (1995-) from China, Yenny Fernanda Alvarez Caicedo (1995-) from Columbia, Zeinab Khales Mohamed Abdalla (1995-) from Egypt, Vajk Karoly Pocza (1988-) from Hungary, Pramila Krisani (1994-) and Minati Sethi (1990-) from India, Tatyana Kapustina (1998-), Yermek Omirtay (1992-), Igor Son (1998-) and Almas Uteshov ( 1988-) from Kazkasthan, Mansour Abdulrahim Al Saleem (1988-) from Saudi Arabia, Azril Huzairi Bin Ramli Mohammad (1995-) from Bali, Iurie Bulat (1994-), Ghenadin Dudodlo (1994-), Artiom Pipa (1992-) , Adrian Stratan (1996-) and Adrian Zbirnea (1990-) from Moldavië, Edith Marlene Perez Castillo (1995-) from Mexico, Hansley Pravin Gaya (1985-) from Mauritius, Elisabeth Onuah (1995-) from Nigeria, Kwang Song Kim (1992-), Un Guk Kim (1988-), Hyon Hwa Ri (1990-) and Un Hui Ryo (1994-) from North Korea, Adrian-Grigore Lingurar (1989-), Mihai Alexandru Popescu (2000-) and Daniel-Florin Vizitiu (1996-) from Romania, Olga Afanaseva (1990- ), Artem Grigoryan (1993-), Denis Kekhter (1997-), Aleksei Kosov (1994-) and Aleksei Lovchev (1989-) from Russia, Juliette Ruby Rita Mavina (1984-) from Seychelles, Umurbek Bazarbayev (1981-) and Muhammet Dovranov (1996-) from Turkmenistan, Ya-Li Zeng (1998-) from Taiwan, Oleg Proshak (1983-) from Ukraine, Guzal Naimova (1994-) and Sunnatila Shokirjonov (1996-) from Uzbekistan.
Received eight years suspension: Elkhan Aligulizada (1995-), Silviya Angelova (1982-), Firidun Guliyev (1994-), Valentin Hristov (1994-) and Intigam Zairov (1985-) from Azerbaijan, Daniela Nicole Villarroel Agramont (1990-) from Bolivia, Patrick Earth Mendes (1990-) from Brazil, Davit Gogia (1990-) from Georgia, Eftychia Ananiadou (1987-) from Greece, Zhassulan Kydyrbayev (1992-) from Kazakhstan, Anatoli Ciricu (1988-) from Moldova, Cinthya Vanessa Dominquez Lara (1982-) from Mexico, Llya Atnabaev (1998-) and Olga Zubova (1993-) from Russia, Chin-Yi Yang (1981-) from Taiwan and Melih Aki (1993-) from Turkey
Got ten years: Bogdan Drandalov (1989-) from Tunisia.
During the National Championship Greco-Roman style, Algerian Abdelkrim Ouakali (1993-) tested positive for the diuretic furosemide, for which he was suspended for two years.